Thursday, February 21, 2019

Pulaagu, Islaam e Ganndal: Natal Seyku Usmaan Dan Foodiyo (1)

Sayku Usmaan Ɓiy Foodiyo ko gooto e mujaddid en ɓurɓe teskeede e nder daartol Islaam haa ɓuri teeŋtude noon e nder ɓaleeri Afrik. Dan fodio (firti ko ɓiy Foodiyo e hawsankoore) hono no o ɓuri lollirde, ko Pullo jeyaaɗo to leydi Hawsa. Ceerno Maamuudu Jah mo Pete (Fuuta Tooro) ene wiya ko o Demdemo (yettoode makko ko Dem) kadi iwdi makko ko Jamaa-Alwaali, diiwan Tooro e nder leydi Fuuta Tooro.Hayso ɗuum laatiima ne, tawat ɓe perii ummaade Fuuta fayde leydi Hawsa gila e yontaaji keewɗi. H.A.S. Johnston e nder deftere mum The Fulani Empire of Sokoto ene hollira heen doggol asko maɓɓe hono no ɓe mbinndiri ɗum ni, tuggude e Muusa Jokollo taaniiɓe gadiiɗo arde Birnin Konni e nder leydi Hawsa o haa yettii Muhammadu Foodiyo baaba mum Seyku Usman, taaniraaɓe sappo ene e hakkude he. 
Jokku Taro
  Tuugnaade e ngoon asko Johnston ene qiimoo gargol lenyol Dan Fodio en e nder leydi Hawsa gila e hitaande 1450. Kanko Johnston o beydi heen haa jooni: “ Ko ɗoon ɓe ngonno nde Konu Askiya honi bannge hiirnaage leydi Hawsa, e ɓe tawaa ƴellitagol e jangol laamu Muhammadu Kanta ndaɓɓu balɗe, ɓe nanii kabaaru wonde konu Jukun en nana darii e damal Katsina kadi ɓe ceediima fusgo laamu Zamfara.”  Ko ɓuri faayodin’de ni e jarde teskaade’ o wiy kanko Johnston, “ko kamɓe Fulɓe Toorankaawa (Toorooɓe) en ɓee ngadii Goobiraawa en, hono Hawsankeeɓe askitinteeɓe e nokku he ɓe, hoɗde e nder diiwaan he.” Kala ko waawi heen won’de kam, daartol nguurndam Seyku Usman ɓiy Foodiyo ene aywina daartol Islaam e nder Ɓaleeri Afrik kala, haa ɓuri teeŋtude noon e daartol lenyol Fulɓe ngol ɓe o jeeyaa e nder mum en ngol.

Islaam e nder Ɓaleeri Afrik
Fulɓe ene njeyaa e lenyɗi Hiirnaange Afrik gadiiɗi naatde e nder diine Islaam. Daartiyankooɓe Arabeeɓe ko wayno Al Bakri, Al-Idriisi walla Ibnu Batuuta en fof ene ceedo jaajgol Islaam e nder Fuuta Tooro (Takrur) gila e teemedannde 11ɓre. Pergol Fulɓe aynaaɓe heewɓe ummaade Fuuta Tooro fayde fuɗnaange e naatondiral maɓɓe toon e leñɗi goɗɗi Afriknaaji juulɓe, ko wayno Manndiŋkeeɓe e Hawsankeeɓe, ɓeydiima tiiɗtindeɓe e nder Islaam e saanga nde yoga e maɓɓe mbaɗti hoɗde e wuurde nguurndam saareyeejam. Nde tawnoo diine e pinal Islaam ko kanum ɓurnoo battinde e yiytinaade e nder saareeji Bilad as-Sudaan.
  Bilaad as-Sudaan, hono no daartiyankeeɓe Islaamyankeeɓe adanɓe ɓe noddiratnoo ɓaleeri Afrik ni, ko cirfol worgo sahara tuggude e Maayo Atlantik to banngo hiirnaange haa yettii Mayo Woɗewo to bannge fuɗnaange. Wiyaama Islaam fuɗɗiima naatde e nder diiwaan he gila e teemedannde 8ɓre.
Ko adii nde Islaam naatata e ɓaleeri Afrik, taw jokkondiral ene woodno hakkunde mum e  Afrik Bannge-rewo, rewrude e lappi njulaagu Taƴcugol Sahara (Trans-saharien). Julaaɓe ummotonooɓe rewo ɓee ene ngaddatnoo njulaari mum en, ndi ngannduɗaa ene tawetenoo heen ndenndaangal geɗe peewnetenooɗe e diiwaan Mediteraani haa e leyɗeele goɗɗe dow mum. So ɓe njeeyi ɓe comoo ɗoon kadi kaŋŋe e lamɗam, nde tawnoo ko geɗe keewnooɗe no feewi e diiwaan ɓaleeri he.
Caggal nde Islaam naati diiwaan o, binndol Arab fuɗɗii saraade e yaajde e nder diiwaan he. Ɗuum ɓeydii jokkondiral, waawde nanondirde e faamondirde; kisal e deeƴre; hoolaare ɓeydii e laabi hee kadi addani jahondiral e njulaagu hakkunde diiwaanuuji ɗiɗi beydaade. Nguun mbayliigu udditii damal naatondiral pine, jillondiral leñɗi e ƴellitagol pine saarankeeje. Ko e nguun mbayliigu laamu Ganna jibinaa e teemedannde 11bre, ngu wuuri haa e teemedannde 13ɓre laamu woɗngu ɓurngu ngu yaajde e doolnude lomtiingu ene wiyee Joomaandu Mali. Duuɓi teemedde ɗiɗi caggal ɗuum laamu ngoɗngu ene wiyee Sonngaay jogtii araaray e nder Hiirnaange Afrik tuggude e teemedannde 15ɓre haa e nder teemedannde 17ɓre. E hitaande 1596 laamu Marok yani e Sonngay ngam yiɗnoode fawde junngo mum e dow kaŋŋe mayri. Haysinno Marok dañaani heen ko wonno sago mum koo ne, doole Sonngaay keli, laamu ngu feccii wonti leykon tokoson. Eɗen teskoo ɗiiɗoo joomaanduji fof noon, gaagaa nder keeri majji,eɗi njiimatnoo e laamuuji tokoosi gonɗi e nder diiwaan he ɗi, ɗi njoɓnoo ɗum en kubbal. To bannge fuɗnaage Sonngaay to laamu nana toon ene wiyee Kanem-Borno ene wiyee ko kanngu e Ganna njiƴƴi kono Kanem-Borno wuurii kanum haa e teemedannde 19ɓre. Hakkunde Sonngaay e Kanem-Borno ko ɗoon leydi Hawsa woni. Ko ndi fecciindi e diiwaanuji, heen gooto fof ene laami hoore mum hayso tawi e ɓe mbaɗdi tummbudu ngootaagu.
Ene jeyaa e ko teskini e laamuuji jaŋtaaɗi dow ɗii kala, wonde ɗi kannji fof laamuuji nodditirtooɗi Islaam. Hayso keeweendi e yimɓe leyɗeele ɓe ngonaano juulɓe ne, haa ɓuri teeŋtude e dowrinkooɓe ɓe, laamɓe ɓee e ko ɓuri heewde e julankooɓe ɓee ko juulɓe ngonno. Laamuuji ɗi mahinoo ko e mbaydi laamuuji leyɗeele Islaam ɗe no mbaynii. Annduɓe ene ittananoo heen geɗal mawngal kadi jaŋde ene hurumanoo heen no feewi. Laamɓe ɓee ene ngaadorino yahde Makkah ngam hajjoyde rwrude  Ejipta, so e ɓe ngarta ɓe ngaddora defte, heen sahaaji ni ɓe ƴettora toon annduɓe ko wayno  seerenɓe diine ɓe ngadda ɗum en ɓe koɗna ɗum en e nokkuuji maɓɓe mbele ene ɓeyda sarde diine o e yaajnude ganndal e nder leyɗeele maɓɓe. Almudɓe kadi ene ummotonoo e leyɗeele he njaha janngoyde e nder duɗe Islaam mawɗe ɗe kala, ko wayno jaaɓi haaɗtirde Azhar to leydi Ejipt to ngannduɗaa laamuuji ɗi ene njogotnoo toon jipporɗe koye mum en, almudɓe ummiiɓe e nder ɗeen leyɗeele ko heen njippotoo tawa ko laamuji  leyɗeele mum en njaltinatnoo hitaande kala ko ɗiin nokkuuji njogoraa. Diiwaan o e hoore mum duɗe keewɗe, mawɗe, kuɓɓii heen. Ganndal Islaam ene sarino no feewi e nder Bilaad as-Sudaan ummaade e Timbuktu haa fay Fuuta Jalon haa yettoyi Fuuta Tooro jaŋde ene saakinoo heen sanne.

Jibinannde E Nehdi
Usmaan Dan Foodiyo jibinaa ko e nder wuro wiyeteengo Maratta e nder ngootiri e leyɗeele Hawsankeeɓe wiyeteendi Gobir, ñalnde 29 lewru Safar, hitaande 1168 Fergo Nelaaɗo ene hawra 15 Decembre 1754. Baaba makko Muhammad Foodiyo, ko ganndo kuɓɓuɗo kadi nananooɗo e nder yonta mum e nder leydi Gobir. Ko o pullo tooroodo, galle maɓɓe ko ɓooyɗo anndireede ganndal e diineyankaagal. Ndeen jibinannde sikke alaa, rokki Usmaan fartaŋeeji ɗiɗi: dañde jannginooɓe tawa ko annduɓe dowrowɓe e rontude hurum e teddungal jibnaaɓe makko e nder ngo renndo ngo ganndal ko huunde teddinaande kadi annduɓe ko rokkaaɓe hurum, heɗanteeɓe.
  Duuɓi ɗiɗi caggal jibineede Dan Foodiyo, Muhammad Fodiyo e ɓesngu mum eggi ummaaade Maratta ɓe koɗoyi wuro ene wiyee Degel.Nde Usmaan danyi duuɓi naatirɗi jaŋde, baaba makko janngini-mo Qur’aan. O janngi kaɓorɗe e biyeteeɗo Abdu Rahmaan dan Hamada. O dali sariya e juuɗe Usmaan Binndoowo Bakebbi, o janngi e mum fannuji keewɗi ko wayno fiqhu, lugha,nahwu, e gannde bayɗe no hiisa (mathematic),  mbewu (astronomie), walla jime (poesie).  Caggal ɗuum o yahi Agades to ganndo gooto Tuwaareg ene wiyee Seyku (sheikh) Jibriilu ben Omar, ko ceedtanonooɗo ganndal e nder diiwan ɓaleeri hee kala; ene wiyee so omo ɗannotonoo, e nder sate makko heen gelooɗi ɗiɗi ndimndata tan ko defte. Usmaan  woni toon ko Allah haaji, o arti  leydi maɓɓe, o fuɗɗii janngude Tafsiir e juuɗe Hasimiwu Basanfara o jokkitoyi e juuɗe bappaañ makko ene wiyee Ahmadu dan Muhammadu Amiinu. Bappaañ makko goɗɗo kadi ene wiyee Muhammadu dan Raji, kanum ne janngini-mo ganndal Hadiis.
  Seyku Usmaan, sabu ko ndeen innde o ɓurata hankadi anndireede, ko almuudo ceedtanaaɗo welde hakkille e yiɗde ganndal; ko o moƴƴo hakkille baawɗo reende kala ko o jannginaa, jaawɗo faamde. O fuɗɗiima winndude jime e neenewal makko Pulaar gila o suwaa heɓde duuɓi noogaas, ɗuum ene sedto udditaare makko e ganndal e feɗɗitaare makko e binndol gila ko o suka. Nde o heɓi hedde duuɓi noogaas ko ndeen o fuɗɗii waɗtude winndude e Arab, o winndi heen yimre makko arwaniire o mo jaara heen Nelaaɗo. Nde Seyku Usmaan heɓata duuɓi 25 taw o heɓii lijaasa (o rokkaa walla o duwana hono no almudɓe mbiyrata jooni ni), o heɓii yamiroore waɗtude jannginde. Ko ndeen o fuɗɗii jannginde almudɓe, ɓe ene jeyaa heen miñi makko ene wiyee Abdullaahi mo o hecci duuɓi sappo e ɗiɗi. O waɗti kadi waajaade,siftinde yimɓe diine mum en e noddude fayde e diine Allah.
 Ɗo seyku Usmaan ɗo noon, duwaneede walla reokkeede lijaasa firtaani gaynude jaŋde hono no almudaagal jooni-ni, alaa, ɗo makko ɗo ko ndeen jaŋde fuɗɗii. Kala ɗo o nannoo ganndo ene hoɗi walla ene yilli e nder diiwaan he o yettoto ɗum, o heɗtoo e mum, wooda ko o ƴoogi e mum. Ene wiyee e ndiin mbaydi o janngii e seerenɓe ko ɓuri teemedere.


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